Senin, 13 Agustus 2012

English Corner



Chess, game of skill and strategy between two people, played using specially designed pieces on a square board comprised of 64 alternating light and dark squares in eight rows of eight squares each. Chess, with a history that extends back thousands of years, is a popular game played around the world.

In chess each player controls an army comprised of eight pawns and eight pieces: one king, one queen, two rooks (sometimes called “castles”), two bishops, and two knights. Although the term pieces is sometimes used to refer to all 16 chess figures, it technically does not refer to pawns. The two armies are of contrasting colors, one light and the other dark, and are always called White and Black regardless of their actual colors. The vertical columns on the board that extend from one player to the other are called files, and the horizontal rows are called ranks. The diagonal lines across the board are called diagonals.

Initial Setup
The board is always placed for play with a light square in the corner to the right of each player. White’s pieces are set up on White’s first rank from left to right in the following order: rook, knight, bishop, queen, king, bishop, knight, rook. Black’s pieces are set up on Black’s first rank from left to right in the order of rook, knight, bishop, king, queen, bishop, knight, rook. The pieces face their exact counterparts at opposite ends of the board, and each queen stands on a square of its own color. The pawns are placed on the second rank of each player, directly in front of the pieces.

Moves of the Pieces
White always moves first, and the players then alternate turns. A move consists of transferring a man to another square that is either vacant or occupied by an opponent’s man. If it is occupied, the opponent’s man is captured (removed from the board and replaced by the capturing man). The only exception is the king, which is never captured (see Object of the Game below). A move to capture is not required unless it is the only possible move.
Only one piece may be moved each turn except when castling (see below). All pieces except the knight move along straight, unobstructed paths; only the knight may move over or around other pieces. The king moves one square in any direction, but not to a square that is attacked by an enemy piece—that is, a square to which an enemy piece can go on the next move. The queen moves as far as desired in any uninterrupted direction. The rook moves as far as desired in any horizontal or vertical direction. The bishop moves as far as desired in any diagonal direction, but is confined to squares of the color on which it began the game. The knight moves a distance of exactly two squares to a square of the opposite color. The path of the move resembles the letter L—two squares horizontally or vertically combined with one square at a right angle. The knight may go over or around any piece in its way.

A player may move more than one man during a turn only when castling, a special maneuver involving the king and one rook. In castling, the king moves two squares to the left or right, and the rook on that side moves to the square next to the king on the opposite side. Castling is allowed only if (1) the king has not yet moved during the game and is not threatened; (2) the rook on the castling side has not yet moved during the game; (3) the squares between the king and that rook are vacant; (4) the king does not pass through or end its move on a square that is attacked by an enemy piece.

Moves of the Pawns
Each pawn, on its first move only, may move straight ahead either one or two squares to a vacant square. After that it may advance only one square at a time. Pawns, unlike the other pieces, do not capture in the direction they move but capture diagonally one square forward. When a pawn advances two squares on its first move and lands next to an opponent’s pawn that is on an adjacent file and the same horizontal row, the opponent’s pawn may capture it as if it had advanced only one square. This capture is known by its French name, en passant (“in passing”). An en passant capture must be carried out immediately or not at all (though the advancing pawn may later be captured in the normal fashion).
When a pawn reaches the last rank on the opposing side of the board, it is promoted—that is, converted to any other piece of the same color (except another pawn or the king). The powers of the new piece take effect immediately. Since a pawn is usually promoted to the strongest piece—the queen—the move is often called queening. The number of possible promotions is limited only by the number of pawns of each player. A player may have two or more queens or other pieces at the same time.

Microsoft ® Encarta ® 2009. © 1993-2008 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

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